Chaperon Newsletter 1/2021
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs in people with an underlying liver disease of either viral or toxic origin. It is usually preceded by cirrhosis. In the Czech Republic alcoholic liver disease is the major etiological factor. Tumor microenvironment is composed of myeloid (innate immunity) and lymphoid (adaptive immunity) lineages. Infiltrating immune cells can function to control tumor growth or to help create an immunosuppressive environment in which the tumor can thrive. The long suspected role for immune surveillance in human cancer has gained strong experimental support in the past decade. The concepts of ‘hot’ or ‘cold’ tumors refer to signs of inflammation (hot) when the tumor has already been infiltrated by T cells, which usually correlates with a response to immunotherapy. Even more gratifying, these scientific breakthroughs have also benefited clinical oncology in the context of diagnostics, prognostication, drug development and therapy.
Normally human cells can divide only a few dozen of times and they can enter senescence. In contrary, the number of cancer cell divisions is not limited and hence they seem immortal. It turned out this limitation is imposed by length of the so called telomeres.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a common skin cancer. It does not usually develop metastases and can be cured by surgery. However, as exposure to solar irradiation is the major risk factor for this skin cancer, the location of tumors are at sun-exposed sites, usually on the face. In this study we collaborated with Finnish dermatologists who treated patients with actinic keratosis, the precursor of squamous cell skin cancer.
“This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 856620”.